1. Introduction

The central point of the Enlightenment - the epoch that aroused in Europe in a fully form in 18th and 19th century - under no doubts, was the power of science. The science - as a new realm of human life and in contrary to the epoch of Middle Ages - aimed "to liberate human kind from material wants, from illusions that mired [people] in fear and igno­rance".

Science was imagined and strongly believed as "a vehicle of hu­man progress" [Seidman 1989, p. 55]. The idea of progress therefore was mainly understood in terms of technical and scientific development as well as but also as a social and moral complexity. In result, it declared strong dismissal of any irrationality. The Enlightenment stood out against traditionally interpreted religion and what is more, "a religiosity based, hierarchical, and elite-governed society (...), struggled for a secu­lar culture that was tolerant of diverse beliefs, values and society that ex­panded individual liberties, social equality, and political democracy" [Seidman 1989, p. 55].

In result, another core-value of the new epoch appeared - it was individualism. Since the Enlightenment ruptured with traditional in­terpretation of social reality that confirmed universal and collective-oriented explanation of the social, simultaneously released man from group-dominated shackles, giving him real freedom and putting "the in­dividual at the heart of society" [Seidman 1989, p. 56]. Any more than it was before, a group or collective power (social class, family, tribe) influ­enced individual so strong.

Natural result of the trend was differentiation. It grew on the field of all these changes, inspired by individualism and freedom, ended up with the new modern society: heterogeneous, capitalistic, where indi­vidualism was its hallmark and "allowed individuals to fashion a life ac­cording to their personal preferences and values" [Seidman 1989, p. 55]. It was exactly what the Enlighteners envisioned: "a freer, more open, and dynamic society" [Seidman 1989, p. 55].

On the other hand, however, almost all Occidental countries (in which the main reflection of the paper is located) struggled with social disorder in that time - named as "revolutionary order" [Ray 1999. p. 86]. Social crisis - caused by social, political (French Revolution, American Civil War) and technical revolutions (England) which implied almost all countries, covered the whole Europe that time. Western societies glori­fied and longed for freedom and cultural pluralism but in the same time were trying to manage in new, extraordinarily dynamic social and politi­cal circumstances. In this context, problem of morality, social order aroused soundly and started playing important scientific, role.

In this specific ambience the works of Emile Durkheim and Max Weber were constructed and it would be strong ignorance to avoid its in­fluence. Both of them faced similar problems, that had a great - whereas different - impact on their works. Durkheim and Weber are broadly known from their achievements in the field of methodology, although their approaches to it strongly differ; the best known opposition between them is Emile Durkheim's reification of social facts and interpretative so­ciology by Max Weber. But apart from that, both of them are also famous for religion-oriented, although opposite, conceptions of the social which are the matter of the paper.

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Источник: Девятых Сергей Юрьевич. Общество, культура, личность. Актуальные проблемы со­циально-гуманитарного знания. 2012

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