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U. Glinska Bialystok University of Technology, Bialystok, Poland

Summary. The paper concerns scientific visions upon religion - and so the society, community - of two of main masters of sociology: Emile Durkheim and Max Weber. Both of them, as great thinkers and philosophers of the Enlightenment, are seen paradoxically - as its heirs as well as its transformers.

Both, as members of the first generation of sociologists, were scientists in fully sense of the word, who elaborated such core-concepts of the Enlightenment as: the power (role) of science (mainly sociology), rationalism, development and progress. They also faced problems of social change, or social complexity of modern societies in terms of individualism, integration, new sources of social order.

Since the Enlightenment ruptured with all irrationally- (magically-, intuitional-ly-, religiously-) oriented perspective, it seems to be intriguing to answer the question: how it was possible that in the age in which the apology of ratio, and the science were so strong, the religion - the realm irrational in its essence - was located in Durkheim's and Weber's works as the domain idea that would influence social life. How it was pos­sible that religion could organize the society rather than disorganize it?

The paper, by presenting the main ideas of Durkheim's and Weber's work, and then throughout their individual approaches to religion, attempts to answer the ques­tion how the religion was interpreted and what role it played in society in each of mentioned conceptions?

One more intellectual (anthropological) axis of reflections put in the paper, and it was Clifford Geetrz's conception of the religion as a cultural system. However, created a century later, it seems to be accurately corresponding to presented views.

Key words: religion; the social; society; community; social change; modern society; the Enlightenment; secularization.

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Источник: Девятых Сергей Юрьевич. Общество, культура, личность. Актуальные проблемы со­циально-гуманитарного знания. 2012

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